Stockholm Medical Cannabis Conference

Skin Salvation: Soothing, Healing, and Numbing with Topical Cannabinoids


Cannabinoids: Unveiling Their Multifaceted Biological Activities

Cannabinoids, a cluster of potent compounds hailing from the Cannabis sativa plant, have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due to their wide-ranging biological activities [1]. Among the plethora of cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most recognized – the former infamous for its psychoactive effects, the latter lauded for its potential therapeutic attributes without inducing a “high” [2]. The biological impact of these compounds primarily stems from their interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a complex cellular communication network integral to maintaining the body’s equilibrium or homeostasis [3].

The Crucial Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Promoting Health and Wellness

The ECS is a sophisticated tripartite system consisting of endocannabinoids (endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters), their associated receptors, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. The two primary receptors – CB1 and CB2 – although distributed throughout the body, prominently feature in the brain and the immune system, respectively [4]. Cannabinoids, by mimicking endocannabinoids, can engage with these receptors to orchestrate a broad spectrum of physiological processes, including but not limited to, pain perception, mood regulation, appetite, sleep, and immune function [3,4,5].

The Rise of Topical Cannabinoids: A Novel Frontier for Therapeutic Exploitation

In recent times, the scope of cannabinoid use has broadened, transcending the conventional oral and inhalational routes to embrace topical applications. Available in an array of formats – lotions, creams, oils, balms – topical cannabinoids are applied directly to the skin for localized effect [6]. This way of using cannabinoids allows for direct delivery to the skin and tissues beneath, which may help in treating various skin and muscle-related conditions [7]. Significantly, as the cannabinoids do not permeate the bloodstream, topical application curbs systemic impacts and mitigates the risk of any psychoactive effects associated with THC [6,8].

In summary, the unique attributes of cannabinoids, when combined with our rapidly increasing comprehension of the ECS, lay the groundwork for future innovative therapeutic paradigms. Topical cannabinoids, in this context, emerge as a promising approach for managing a spectrum of health conditions.

Cannabinoids and the Pathway to Skin Health

Unraveling the Link: Cannabinoid Receptors and Skin Vitality

The skin, our body’s largest organ, is a dynamic ecosystem with a critical role in safeguarding our health. Excitingly, studies have revealed the skin’s active participation in the ECS [6,9]. Key cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are found in a variety of skin cells like keratinocytes, immune cells, and sensory nerves [6]. This wide distribution of receptors signals a significant involvement of the ECS in skin health and disease. Notably, an upregulation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid channels TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4 has been observed in the skin of rosacea patients, pointing to potential efficacy of cannabinoid-based therapies.

The Subtle Interplay: Cannabinoids and Skin Receptor Engagement

Both endogenous and plant-derived cannabinoids engage with these receptors to modulate an array of skin functions. For example, they regulate skin cell proliferation and differentiation, key processes in skin renewal and wound healing [11,12,13]. Additionally, they manage the immune response, maintaining skin balance and guarding against harmful pathogens [11]. Intriguingly, cannabinoids also affect the sensations of pain and itch, common in many skin conditions [12].

Revealing the Promise: Cannabinoids and Their Skin Health Benefits

The potential benefits of cannabinoids for skin health are broad and exciting. Both preclinical and clinical studies have yielded promising results for treating various skin conditions with cannabinoids. For instance, cannabinoids have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing symptoms of inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis through topical application [13]. They also show promise in managing skin cancer by curbing the growth and spread of cancerous cells [14].

Moreover, several minor cannabinoids demonstrate varying effectiveness in targeting sebocyte functions and treating skin ailments. Phytocannabinoids, including CBC and THCV, suppress basal sebaceous lipid synthesis, while CBDV has minimal impact, and CBG and CBGV increase it. Notably, CBC, CBDV, and THCV significantly reduce arachidonic acid (AA)-induced lipogenesis related to acne. THCV also suppresses proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids show potent anti-inflammatory effects. CBG and CBGV might be useful for treating dry-skin syndrome, while CBC, CBDV, and particularly THCV, could serve as novel anti-acne agents [15].

In summary, the existence of cannabinoid receptors in the skin and the interaction of cannabinoids with these receptors point to an exciting potential for the development of cannabinoid-based skin therapies. However, further research is essential to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to optimize these compounds’ use in dermatology.

Topical Cannabinoids in Pain Management: An Emerging Strategy

A New Frontier in Pain Management: The Promise of Topical Cannabinoids

The potential of cannabinoids as effective pain relievers has been a significant research focus, with a wealth of evidence supporting their use in diverse pain-related conditions. Topical cannabinoids have shown particular promise for delivering localized pain relief, and their efficacy has been the subject of numerous investigations [16].

Decoding Pain Relief: Cannabinoids’ Modes of Action

Cannabinoids achieve their analgesic effects via multiple pathways. Primarily, they engage with CB1 and CB2 receptors within the peripheral nervous system, implicated in the modulation of pain signals [18]. These receptors’ activation can inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory substances and reduce the sensitivity of pain-sensing neurons, thereby mitigating pain sensation [19]. Some cannabinoids, such as CBD, have been observed to interact with non-cannabinoid receptors like TRPV1, also involved in pain and inflammation [20].

From Evidence to Application: Studies on Topical Cannabinoids for Pain

Numerous studies have underscored the effectiveness of topical cannabinoids in pain management. For example, a randomized controlled trial revealed that topical CBD oil significantly reduced pain and improved sleep quality among peripheral neuropathy patients [21]. Another study noted that a topical cream comprising THC and CBD reduced pain and enhanced the quality of life for chronic pain sufferers [22].

In conclusion, topical cannabinoids present a promising therapeutic strategy for pain management. Their unique modes of action and positive safety profile make them an appealing alternative or supplement to traditional pain medications.

Topical Cannabinoids for Skin Disorders: Pioneering Progress in Dermatology

Topical cannabinoids have been increasingly integrated into dermatology owing to their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects. The endocannabinoid system is intrinsically involved in the pathophysiology of several skin conditions, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, and acne. Topical cannabinoids, by acting on the endocannabinoid system, may offer therapeutic benefits.

Trailblazing Research on Topical Cannabinoids: Transforming Skin Condition Treatment

Cannabinoids, with their anti-inflammatory characteristics, show promise in treating various inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and rosacea. A study by Wilkinson and Williamson demonstrated that cannabinoids could inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, suggesting their potential use in psoriasis treatment [10].

Beyond their anti-inflammatory properties, cannabinoids also display antipruritic effects. Ständer et al. (2005) found that a cream containing the endocannabinoid N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) effectively reduced itchiness and improved sleep in patients with prurigo, lichen simplex, and pruritus [11].

Acne, a common skin condition characterized by excess sebum production and inflammation, has been a primary focus of this context’s research. Studies show that Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, can inhibit sebocyte proliferation and lipid production. Moreover, CBD exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, positioning it as a potential therapeutic option for acne management [23].

Recently, the potential role of cannabinoids in treating rosacea, a highly prevalent skin disease, has been examined. Rosacea is associated with significant morbidity due to its symptoms, and transient receptor potential ion channels, known to be triggered in rosacea, may underlie a portion of rosacea’s pathophysiology. Garbutcheon-Singh et al. detailed the transient receptor potential channel pathways in rosacea and the known effects of cannabinoids on these pathways. They discussed the potential role of cannabinoids in treating rosacea, emphasizing that cannabinoids, by acting on a number of different receptors like cannabinoids receptors and transient receptor potential ion channel family, can modulate skin inflammation, pain, and itch [24].

Unraveling Healing Mechanisms: Cannabinoids’ Impact on Skin

Cannabinoids, particularly CBD, owe their anti-inflammatory properties to their capacity to modulate the immune response. Cannabidiol amplifies endocannabinoid tone and activates CB2 receptors on immune cells, resulting in reduced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines [25]. This interaction may help diminish inflammation and alleviate symptoms in conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. Furthermore, cannabinoids can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes – the most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Overactivity of these cells is a characteristic feature of psoriasis, and their regulation by cannabinoids could help control this condition [11].

Real-life Outcomes and Case Studies: Verifying the Efficacy of Topical Cannabinoids

Several case studies and patient testimonials corroborate these findings. For instance, one study reported marked improvements in the quality of life and disease severity among patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis after using a topical cream containing cannabinoids [26]. Other case reports depict the highly successful topical use of cannabidiol in treating epidermolysis bullosa [27]. Patient testimonials commonly highlight reductions in itchiness, inflammation, and redness, along with overall improvements in skin health.

In conclusion, the unique attributes of cannabinoids and their interaction with the skin’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) suggest a promising direction for the development of innovative therapies for various skin disorders. As ongoing research continues to unravel the mechanisms by which cannabinoids exert their effects, the future of dermatological treatments is set to broaden, offering new hope for patients contending with challenging skin conditions.

Topical Cannabinoids for Wound Healing

Unlocking the Potential of Topical Phytocannabinoids for Enhanced Wound Recovery

The potential of topical phytocannabinoids for wound healing is gaining increasing attention, with a burgeoning body of research spotlighting their therapeutic benefits [7]. These compounds, sourced from the Cannabis sativa plant, interface with the skin’s endocannabinoid system, a key player in preserving skin equilibrium and fostering wound repair [9].

Gathering the Evidence: A Review of Studies on Cannabinoids for Wound Healing

Numerous studies have delved into the impacts of topical cannabinoids on wound healing. For instance, research led by Maida et al. discovered that topical THC and CBD fostered wound healing and ameliorated pain in patients suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum, a rare and painful skin ulcer [17]. In similar vein, another study revealed that the topical application of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, expedited wound closure in mice, signposting its potential for treating skin injuries [8].

The Healing Power of β-Caryophyllene: A Spotlight on a Dietary Cannabinoid

The terpene β-caryophyllene (BCP) has also demonstrated promising effects on wound healing. A dietary cannabinoid, BCP is a prominent component of the essential oils of numerous medicinal plants, including cannabis. It has been identified to selectively bind to the CB2 receptor, a key receptor in the skin’s endocannabinoid system, thereby exerting its therapeutic effects [28].

Research by Parisotto-Peterle et al. showcased the healing activity of a hydrogel featuring nanoemulsified BCP. The team discovered that the BCP hydrogel notably accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization in a rat model. The study further unveiled that BCP boosted the formation of granulation tissue, a critical element in the wound healing process, suggesting BCP’s potential as a therapeutic agent for wound management [29]. Similarly, a study by Koyama et al. observed that BCP enhanced wound healing through various pathways. The researchers found that BCP promoted wound closure, modulated the inflammatory response essential for wound healing, and stimulated the migration of fibroblasts, the cells pivotal for wound closure. This underscores BCP’s potential in wound healing [30].

These studies underscore the potential of BCP and other minor cannabinoids in wound healing. Nevertheless, more research is needed to fully comprehend their mechanisms of action and to devise effective cannabinoid-based therapies for wound management.

Decoding the Mechanisms: How Topical Cannabinoids Foster Wound Healing

The potential mechanisms propelling the wound healing properties of topical cannabinoids are manifold. They are known for their anti-inflammatory effects, which can temper the inflammatory response that often hampers wound healing [7]. Moreover, cannabinoids can stimulate the production of keratinocytes, the skin’s main cell type, which are essential for wound closure [11]. They can also boost wound healing by modulating the immune response, promoting angiogenesis, and alleviating pain and itch linked to wounds [7].

Emerging Applications: Topical Cannabinoids for Hair Loss Treatment

Two case study series have reported on the topical application of CBD and broad-spectrum hemp extract in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). The inaugural study unveiled a 94% increase in hair regrowth from daily topical use of 4 mg CBD [31]. The second follow-up study demonstrated an increased efficacy when a more potent broad-spectrum hemp extract was used (33 mg cannabinoids; 60% CBD, 13% CBDV, 4% THCV, 1% CBG, <0.2% THC). The mean hair regrowth was determined to be 246% for men (n=15), and 127% for women (n=16) [32].

Table: Summary of studies investigating the efficacy and adverse events of topical cannabinoid treatments for various skin conditions.

Emphasizing Safety: Assessing the Safety Profile of Topical Cannabinoids

Given their potential therapeutic benefits, the safety and efficacy of topical cannabinoids have been at the forefront of scientific exploration. Typically, topical cannabinoids have demonstrated a strong safety profile. As they are applied topically, their systemic absorption is minimal, consequently reducing the risk of systemic side effects [33].

Possible Side Effects and Tolerability: Recognizing the Potential Risks of Topical Cannabinoids

Although most studies report that topical cannabinoids are well-tolerated with minimal to non-existent adverse effects, like any therapeutic substance, they may potentially cause side effects. Some users have reported mild skin irritation or allergic reactions, although these occurrences are relatively infrequent [7].

Therapeutic Showdown: Comparing Topical Cannabinoids to Traditional Treatments

In terms of efficacy, topical cannabinoids have showcased promising results in managing a variety of skin conditions. They have proven effective in mitigating symptoms of psoriasis, eczema, and acne, among others. However, it’s noteworthy that the efficacy of topical cannabinoids can differ depending on the specific condition and the individual’s response to treatment [11]. Traditional treatments, while potentially offering more rapid symptom relief, often come with a higher risk of side effects. Therefore, topical cannabinoids may provide a safer option for the long-term management of chronic skin conditions.

Adherence to Guidelines: Essential Considerations When Using Topical Cannabinoids

However, as with any form of treatment, it is crucial for individuals to consult with a healthcare provider before initiating the use of topical cannabinoids. This is especially important for those with known skin sensitivities, or those who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or living with a serious medical condition.

Regulatory Status and Market Availability

Deciphering the Legal Landscape: Worldwide Regulatory Status of Topical Cannabinoids

The regulatory landscape and market accessibility of topical cannabinoids exhibit significant variations across distinct regions. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has yet to endorse any over-the-counter (OTC) products imbued with cannabinoids, including CBD, for any medical conditions. The agency harbors reservations regarding the safety, efficacy, and quality of these products [34].

On the other hand, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopts a more lenient viewpoint towards medicinal products composed of cannabinoids. While the EMA doesn’t directly oversee the approval of these products, it imparts scientific counsel to corporations and national authorities on the formulation and assessment of medicines, including those consisting of cannabinoids [35].

Navigating the Market: An Examination of Commercially Available Topical Cannabinoid Products

Expanding from a commercial viewpoint, there is an extensive range of topical cannabinoid products available to consumers. These encompass not only creams, lotions, and balms, but also salves, oils, and ointments, each providing its unique formulation of cannabinoids for external use.

These products are commonly marketed with promises of various therapeutic benefits. From pain relief and reduction of inflammation, to promoting healthier skin and even potential hair regrowth, these advantages are touted widely. Yet it’s crucial to note that while some of these claims are grounded in emerging research, many others are often supported by limited or anecdotal evidence. This disparity in evidence makes it important for consumers to approach these claims with a discerning eye.

Furthermore, the quality and cannabinoid content of these products can fluctuate considerably from one product to another. In some instances, products may contain significantly different concentrations of cannabinoids than advertised, while others may even contain unwanted contaminants. This discrepancy is due, in part, to insufficient quality control measures and lax regulatory oversight, factors that can present significant risks to consumers.

Consumers, therefore, must tread carefully in this market. A robust approach is to consider purchasing products only from reputable sources that are transparent about their manufacturing processes and quality control measures. Such sources often provide comprehensive certificates of analysis from third-party laboratories, verifying the product’s cannabinoid content, and confirming the absence of harmful substances like heavy metals or pesticides.

In a rapidly evolving market like that of cannabinoids, staying informed and cautious is key. With ongoing advancements in research and regulations, the hope is that the future will bring not only improved product quality but also a clearer understanding of the real potential and limitations of topical cannabinoids.


The Multifaceted Role of Topical Cannabinoids in Skin Health and Pain Management

Topical cannabinoids pave a promising pathway for the treatment of various skin ailments and pain management. Numerous studies and reviews have underscored their potential advantages, encapsulating anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, analgesic, antiseborrheic, hair regrowth-enhancing, and wound healing properties [7,8,13,14,16,20,23,24,25,26,31,32,33,36]. Furthermore, the existence of various cannabinoid receptors in the skin supplies a direct conduit for these compounds to exert their therapeutic impacts [9].

However, the utilization of topical cannabinoids is not without hurdles. The regulatory environment for these products is intricate and exhibits notable variations across states and countries. The quality and cannabinoid content of commercially obtainable products can fluctuate broadly, inciting concerns about their safety and effectiveness. As the regulatory environment continues to evolve, it is hoped that the quality, efficacy, and safety of these products will simultaneously improve.

Future Research Opportunities for Topical Cannabinoids in Dermatology and Pain Management

Looking forward, additional research is required to comprehensively understand the diverse mechanisms of action of topical cannabinoids. Advancements in topical formulations and the establishment of standardized protocols for their use will lend further credibility to this burgeoning pharmacological domain. Clinical trials featuring larger sample sizes and extended follow-up durations are also necessary to substantiate the safety and effectiveness of these products. With sustained research, topical cannabinoids are well-positioned to constitute an increasingly pivotal tool in the dermatological and pain management repertoire in the future.

Stefan Broselid, Ph.D.
Editor-In-Chief, Aurea Care Medical Science Journal


  1. Mechoulam R, Parker LA. The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013;64:21-47.
  2. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215.
  3. Lu HC, Mackie K. An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79(7):516-525.
  4. Mackie K. Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20 Suppl 1:10-14.
  5. Maccarrone M, Bab I, Bíró T, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015;36(5):277-296.
  6. Ständer S, Schmelz M, Metze D, Luger T, Rukwied R. Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin. J Dermatol Sci. 2005;38(3):177-188.
  7. Eagleston LRM, Kalani NK, Patel RR, Flaten HK, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review. Dermatol Online J. 2018;24(6).
  8. Hammell, D.C., Zhang, L.P., Ma, F., et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016; 20(6):936-948.
  9. Bíró T, Tóth BI, Haskó G, Paus R, Pacher P. The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(8):411-420.
  10. Ständer S, Schmelz M, Metze D, Luger T, Rukwied R. Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin. J Dermatol Sci. 2005;38(3):177-188.
  11. Wilkinson JD, Williamson EM. Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. J Dermatol Sci. 2007;45(2):87-92.
  12. Gaffal E, Cron M, Glodde N, Tüting T. Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors. Allergy. 2013;68(8):994-1000.
  13. Ständer S, Reinhardt HW, Luger TA. Topical cannabinoid agonists. An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus. Hautarzt. 2006;57(9):801-807.
  14. Mounessa JS, Siegel JA, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. The role of cannabinoids in dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77(1):188-190.
  15. Casanova ML, Blázquez C, Martínez-Palacio J, et al. Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. J Clin Invest. 2003;111(1):43-50.
  16. Oláh A, Markovics A, Szabó-Papp J, et al. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2016;25(9):701-707. doi:10.1111/exd.13042
  17. Maida V, Corban J. Topical Medical Cannabis (TMC): A new treatment for wound pain-Three cases of Pyoderma Gangrenosum. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017;54(5):732-736.
  18. Starowicz K, Finn DP. Cannabinoids and Pain: Sites and Mechanisms of Action. Adv Pharmacol. 2017;80:437-475.
  19. Anand P, Whiteside G, Fowler CJ, Hohmann AG. Targeting CB2 receptors and the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of pain. Brain Res Rev. 2009;60(1):255-266.
  20. Iannotti FA, Hill CL, Leo A, et al. Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014;5(11):1131-1141.
  21. Xu DH, Cullen BD, Tang M, Fang Y. The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2020;21(5):390-402.
  22. Haroutounian S, Ratz Y, Ginosar Y, et al. The effect of medicinal cannabis on pain and quality-of-life outcomes in chronic pain: A prospective open-label study. Clin J Pain. 2016;32(12):1036-1043.
  23. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713-3724.
  24. Garbutcheon-Singh KB, Smith SD. Cannabinoids interaction with transient receptor potential family and implications in the treatment of rosacea. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(6):e15162. doi:10.1111/dth.15162
  25. Atalay, S., Jarocka-Karpowicz, I., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2019). Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants, 9(1), 21. doi: 10.3390/antiox9010021
  26. Palmieri B, Laurino C, Vadalà M. A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. Clin Ter. 2019;170(2):e93-e99.
  27. Chelliah MP, Zinn Z, Khuu P, Teng JMC. Self-initiated use of topical cannabidiol oil for epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018;35(4):e224-e227. doi:10.1111/pde.13545
  28. Koyama S, Purk A, Kaur M, et al. Beta-caryophyllene enhances wound healing through multiple routes. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0216104. Published 2019 Dec 16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216104
  29. Parisotto-Peterle J, Bidone J, Lucca LG, et al. Healing activity of hydrogel containing nanoemulsified β-caryophyllene. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2020;148:105318. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105318
  30. Koyama S, Purk A, Kaur M, et al. Beta-caryophyllene enhances wound healing through multiple routes. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0216104. Published 2019 Dec 16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216104
  31. Smith GL, Satino J. Hair Regrowth with Cannabidiol (CBD)-rich Hemp Extract – A Case Series. Cannabis. 2021;4(1):53-59. Published 2021 Apr 22. doi:10.26828/cannabis/2021.01.003
  32. Smith GL. Hair Regrowth with Novel Hemp Extract: A Case Series. Int J Trichology. 2023;15(1):18-24. doi:10.4103/ijt.ijt_34_22
  33. Linde LD, Ogryzlo CM, Choles CM, Cairns BE, Kramer JLK. Efficacy of topical cannabinoids in the management of pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2022;47(3):183-191. doi:10.1136/rapm-2021-102719
  36. Maida V. Topical cannabis-based medicines – A novel paradigm and treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis leg ulcers: An open label trial. Int Wound J. 2018;15(5):776-782.