Stockholm Medical Cannabis Conference

The Endocannabinoid System and Parkinson’s Disease: Therapeutic Insights and Perspectives

I. Introduction

Understanding Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurological condition that affects millions of people around the world. It is characterized by the gradual loss of specific brain cells that produce dopamine, a chemical messenger involved in movement control, and the build-up of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies [1]. This leads to various motor and non-motor symptoms, such as slowed movement, muscle stiffness, tremors, memory problems, and mood changes [2]. Despite progress in PD research, current treatments only address the symptoms and do not halt the disease’s progression, emphasizing the need for new therapeutic approaches.

The Endocannabinoid System and Its Expanded Version, the Endocannabinoidome

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex network of molecules and receptors that helps regulate many body functions, including immune responses, mood, and pain [3]. It consists of natural cannabis-like compounds (endocannabinoids), receptors (such as CB1 and CB2), and enzymes that produce and break down these compounds [3]. The endocannabinoidome (eCBome) is a broader term that includes additional molecules and receptors, which expands the ECS’s potential roles and interactions [4].

II. The ECS and eCBome in Neurodegenerative Diseases

The ECS and eCBome have been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis [5]. In the context of PD, the ECS/eCBome is thought to influence inflammation, oxidative stress, and brain cell survival, suggesting that it could be a valuable target for new treatments [6].

Recent Research on the ECS/eCBome and Parkinson’s Disease

Exciting new research has highlighted the potential benefits of targeting the ECS and eCBome in PD. Laboratory and animal studies have demonstrated protective effects of various cannabis-like compounds and eCBome components, such as N-oleoylglycine, which protected against a specific type of neurotoxicity in a cellular model of PD [7]. Moreover, some clinical studies have reported potential benefits of cannabinoid-based therapies in PD patients, including improved quality of life and relief of psychotic symptoms [8,9]. These findings have spurred growing interest in the ECS/eCBome as a possible therapeutic target for PD, paving the way for future research and the development of innovative treatment options.

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Parkinson’s Disease

CB1 Receptors and Their Importance in PD

CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain and play a role in controlling movement, thinking, and emotions [10]. In PD, the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells leads to motor symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and slowed movement. Interestingly, CB1 receptors are located in brain areas directly affected by this loss, suggesting a potential connection between CB1 receptors and PD [11-12]. In fact, animal studies have shown that activating CB1 receptors can influence dopamine release, which could potentially reduce the severity of motor symptoms [12-13]. This is a plausible explanation to the many anecdotal case reports of PD patients getting immediate relief in motor symptoms when inhaling cannabinoids.

The Role of CB2 Receptors in PD

CB2 receptors are primarily expressed on immune cells, including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), but recent research has also revealed CB2 receptor expression on neurons and astrocytes, suggesting a more complex role for this receptor in the CNS [14-16]. CB2 receptor activation has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various models of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, through the modulation of neuroinflammatory processes and the release of proinflammatory factors, as well as direct effects on neuronal survival and synaptic function [17-20]. In preclinical models of PD, CB2 receptor agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects in reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity, ultimately leading to the preservation of dopaminergic neurons [21-23]. These findings suggest that CB2 receptor activation may represent a promising therapeutic target for PD.

The role of other eCBome components in PD

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)

FAAH and MAGL are the primary enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG, respectively. Inhibiting these enzymes increases eCB levels and demonstrates neuroprotective effects in preclinical PD models [24]. In particular, FAAH inhibitors have demonstrated the potential to reduce neuroinflammation and protect dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD [24-25].

N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs)

Other eCBome components, such as NAEs and NAPEs, have also been implicated in PD pathophysiology. Some NAEs, like palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), are known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects [26-27]. In animal models of PD, PEA has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation and promote neuronal survival [28-29]. Similarly, OEA administration has been shown to attenuate dopaminergic neurodegeneration in preclinical PD models [30].

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels

TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, are non-selective cation channels that are widely expressed in the CNS and are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. They have been implicated in the modulation of eCB signaling and the pathophysiology of PD [6,31]. For example, TRPV1 activation has been shown to induce the release of eCBs and exert neuroprotective effects in models of PD [32,5]. Moreover, TRPV1 antagonists have demonstrated potential in alleviating motor symptoms and reducing neurodegeneration in preclinical PD models [33-34]

Summary of ECS and PD 

In summary, components from all levels, including endocannabinoid-producing enzymes, endocannabinoids themselves, as well as both canonical and eCBome receptors, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PD. This suggests that the ECS/eCBome constitutes a highly relevant research area, and continued investment in research could accelerate the development of novel treatment options for PD. Further research is needed to better understand the precise roles of how these components fit into the pathophysiology of PD and to develop effective pharmacological interventions that modulate the ECS/eCBome with precision to alleviate PD symptoms and slow disease progression.

Crosstalk between the ECS and dopaminergic systems in PD

The interaction between the ECS and dopaminergic systems in PD is complex and not yet fully understood. It is known that dopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of movement, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is a hallmark of PD. The ECS has been shown to modulate dopaminergic transmission in several brain regions, including the basal ganglia, which are involved in motor control [35-36].

In PD, the dysregulation of the dopaminergic system contributes to motor symptoms and the formation of Lewy bodies, which are intraneuronal protein aggregates mainly composed of alpha-synuclein. Interestingly, the ECS has been implicated in the modulation of alpha-synuclein expression and aggregation [37]. This suggests that the ECS may play a role in the pathological processes underlying PD and could potentially be targeted to alleviate symptoms and modify disease progression.

Moreover, the ECS has been found to influence the function of other neurotransmitter systems that are also affected in PD, such as glutamate, GABA, and serotonin [38-39]. This further highlights the complexity of the interaction between the ECS and the dopaminergic system in PD and underscores the potential of targeting the ECS for the development of novel therapeutics.

In summary, the crosstalk between the ECS and the dopaminergic system in PD is intricate and multifaceted. A better understanding of this interaction could provide valuable insights into the development of new treatments that target both the ECS and dopaminergic system to alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression.

III. Therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS and eCBome in Parkinson’s disease

Given the involvement of the ECS and eCBome components in the pathophysiology of PD, there is growing interest in exploring the therapeutic potential of targeting these systems for the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder.

In vitro and in vivo studies of ECS/eCBome modulation in PD models

Research on the therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS and eCBome in PD has primarily focused on in vitro and in vivo models. These studies have shown that modulating ECS components, such as CB1 and CB2 receptors, can have neuroprotective effects, reduce neuroinflammation, and improve motor function in PD models [1-2]. Similarly, studies targeting eCBome components, like N-oleoylglycine, have demonstrated protective effects against neurotoxicity in cellular models of PD [7]. These findings support the idea that ECS and eCBome modulation could be a promising therapeutic strategy for PD.

Randomised Clinical Trials of cannabinoid-based therapies in PD patients

PD and Cannabidiol

Although limited, clinical studies of cannabinoid-based therapies in PD patients have shown promising results. For example, one study found that CBD administration improved the quality of life in PD patients without comorbid psychiatric conditions [40]. Another study reported that CBD improved REM sleep behavior disorder in a small cohort of PD patients [6]. Moreover, CBD has been shown to relieve psychotic symptoms in PD patients without causing adverse side effects [41].

PD and CB1 agonists

In addition to CBD, other cannabinoid-based therapies have been explored for their potential benefits in PD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effects of the cannabinoid agonist nabilone on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD patients found that nabilone significantly reduced dyskinesia severity [42]. Furthermore, the administration of dronabinol (delta-9-THC) was found to reduce Parkinsonian motor symptoms and improve sleep in a small open-label pilot study [43].

PD and medical cannabis

The use of medical cannabis has also been investigated in PD. In a survey-based study, 46% of PD patients who self-medicated with cannabis reported improvement in clinical symptoms, such as tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia [44]. However, it is important to note that this study relied on self-report and lacked a control group. In another observational study, analysis of PD patients using medical cannabis showed significant improvements in motor symptoms, pain, and sleep quality [45].

Despite the promising findings, it is important to acknowledge that many studies on cannabinoid-based therapies in PD are limited by small sample sizes, lack of control groups, or open-label designs, which may introduce bias. As a result, further research, including larger, well-controlled clinical trials, is needed to establish the efficacy and safety of cannabinoid-based therapies in PD. Nevertheless, the existing clinical findings suggest that cannabinoid-based therapies could be a valuable addition to the current PD treatment landscape.

PD and “extended” endocannabinoids

As our understanding of the ECS and eCBome expands, novel therapeutic agents are being identified, offering new opportunities for targeted therapies that leverage these systems to address specific aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathology. For instance, N-oleoylglycine, an endogenous “extended” bioactive endocannabinoid has recently been shown to protect against neurotoxicity in PD models through the activation of PPARα and modulation of the eCBome [7]. The discovery of such agents underscores the potential of developing innovative treatments that target the ECS and eCBome in PD management.

Combination therapies and the potential for synergistic effects

Considering the complex nature of PD and the involvement of multiple pathways in its pathogenesis, combination therapies that target different aspects of the disease could offer improved outcomes. Integrating ECS and eCBome-targeted therapies with currently available treatments may lead to synergistic effects, enhancing the overall therapeutic potential. For example, Jain et al. (2023) suggest that cannabinoids could slow or halt the deterioration of the brain’s dopaminergic systems, complementing existing treatments that focus on symptomatic relief [46]. This approach emphasizes the need for further research to fully understand the potential of combining ECS/eCBome-targeted therapies with current PD treatments, with the goal of maximizing therapeutic efficacy and improving patient outcomes.

Personalized Approaches in ECS/eCBome-based Therapies for PD

Since Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms can vary greatly between individuals, it’s important to develop personalized treatments when targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the expanded endocannabinoidome (eCBome). By understanding how genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors impact both the ECS and PD, we can create tailored treatments that work best for each person. Studying how individual genes influence responses to these treatments will help us design more effective plans, ultimately improving the well-being of PD patients.

Table 1. A summary of known interventions working at drug targets in the ECS/eCBome and their effects on PD.

IV. Challenges and future directions in ECS/eCBome-based therapies for PD

Identification of optimal targets within the ECS and eCBome

One of the primary challenges in developing ECS/eCBome-based therapies for PD is pinpointing the most effective and safe targets within this intricate system. While research has illuminated the roles of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PD pathology [1,2], the eCBome comprises a wider range of lipid mediators and receptors [7]. Thorough characterization of these components and their involvement in PD pathogenesis is crucial for determining the optimal targets for therapeutic intervention.

Creating selective and specific modulators for ECS components

Another challenge involves developing selective and specific modulators for the identified ECS targets. Given the ECS’s involvement in various physiological processes, targeting its components may result in off-target effects or unintended consequences. It is essential to develop compounds with high selectivity and specificity for the desired ECS components to minimize side effects and maximize therapeutic benefits.

Addressing the need for large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials

Although preclinical studies and limited clinical trials have demonstrated promise for ECS/eCBome-based therapies in PD, there is an urgent need for large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to rigorously assess the safety and efficacy of these interventions. Such trials will furnish the necessary evidence to support the integration of ECS/eCBome-based therapies into the standard of care for PD patients and ensure the development of safe and effective treatments.

Considering drug-drug interactions in combined therapies

As ECS/eCBome-based therapies may be combined with existing PD medications, it is important to address the potential for drug-drug interactions in future research. Understanding these interactions will be crucial to ensure the safety and effectiveness of combined treatment approaches.

Overcoming regulatory and social barriers in cannabinoid research and therapy

Lastly, the development and implementation of ECS/eCBome-based therapies for PD face significant regulatory and social barriers due to the association of cannabinoids with recreational drug use. Overcoming these barriers will require ongoing education and communication efforts to raise awareness about the significance of the ECS in human physiology. Increased ECS education will lead to much needed increased medical knowledge levels of the many potential therapeutic applications of ECS/eCBome mediators, including phytocannabinoids, “extended” dietary endocannabinoids, and their derivatives, as well as collaborations among researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and patient advocacy groups. By addressing these challenges, the scientific community can harness the full potential of the ECS and eCBome in developing novel and effective therapies for Parkinson’s disease.

V. Conclusion

Current state of ECS/eCBome research in Parkinson’s disease

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) and its expanded counterpart, the endocannabinoidome (eCBome), have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease (PD) due to their roles in neuroprotection, inflammation, motor control and quality of life [1-2]. Research has primarily investigated the roles of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PD pathology, while recent studies have started to explore the potential of other eCBome components, such as N-oleoylglycine [7]. In vitro, in vivo, and limited clinical studies have demonstrated potential benefits of ECS/eCBome modulation in PD models and patients.

However, there are several challenges and future directions to consider, such as identifying optimal targets within the ECS and eCBome, creating selective and specific modulators, addressing the need for large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials, considering drug-drug interactions in combined therapies, and overcoming regulatory and social barriers in cannabinoid research and therapy.

Emphasizing the need for ongoing research and collaboration in the field

Despite progress in understanding the role of the ECS/eCBome in PD and developing potential therapies, significant challenges remain, such as identifying optimal targets, creating selective and specific modulators, and conducting large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. Overcoming these obstacles requires sustained research and collaboration among scientists, clinicians, policymakers, educators, and patient advocacy groups. Advancing our understanding of the ECS/eCBome and its therapeutic potential will enable the development of novel, effective treatments for PD, ultimately improving the lives of those affected by this debilitating disease.

Stefan Broselid, Ph.D.
Editor-In-Chief, Aurea Care Medical Science Journal

Reference list:

  1. Oliveira da Cruz JF, Robin LM, Terra VC, et al. Endocannabinoid System and Parkinson’s Disease: New Perspectives in Therapy. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:596444. doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.596444
  2. Basile MS, Mazzon E. The Endocannabinoid System and Parkinson’s Disease. In: Viganò D, Di Marzo V, eds. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Monoamines in Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders. Academic Press; 2022:93-117. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-824720-9.00006-5
  3. Di Marzo, V., & Piscitelli, F. (2015). The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics, 12(4), 692-698. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0374-6
  4. Di Marzo V, Piscitelli F. The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):692-698.
  5. Fernández-Ruiz J, Moro MA, Martínez-Orgado J. Cannabinoids in neurodegenerative disorders and stroke/brain trauma: from preclinical models to clinical applications. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):793-806.
  6. Fernández-Ruiz J, Sagredo O, Pazos MR, et al. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(2):323-333.
  7. Lauritano A, Pisanti S, Gazzerro P, et al. Protective effects of N-oleoylglycine in a cellular model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(2):782.
  8. Chagas, M. H., Zuardi, A. W., Tumas, V., Pena-Pereira, M. A., Sobreira, E. T., Bergamaschi, M. M., … & Crippa, J. A. (2014). Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(11), 1088-1098.
  9. Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., Hallak, J. E., Pinto, J. P., Chagas, M. H., Rodrigues, G. G., … & Tumas, V. (2009). Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(8), 979-983.
  10. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215.
  11. Blesa J, Trigo-Damas I, Quiroga-Varela A, Jackson-Lewis VR. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s disease. Front Neuroanat. 2015;9:91. Published 2015 Jul 8. doi:10.3389/fnana.2015.00091
  12. Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC. Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease models. Nature. 2007;445(7128):643-647.
  13. Gubellini P, Picconi B, Bari M, et al. Experimental Parkinsonism alters endocannabinoid degradation: implications for striatal glutamatergic transmission. J Neurosci. 2002;22(16):6900-6907.
  14. Cabral GA, Griffin-Thomas L. Emerging role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in immune regulation: therapeutic prospects for neuroinflammation. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009;11:e3.
  15. Benito C, Núñez E, Tolón RM, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer’s disease brains. J Neurosci. 2007;27(43):11141-11151.
  16. Onaivi ES, Ishiguro H, Gong JP, et al. Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1074:514-536.
  17. Price DA, Martinez AA, Seillier A, et al. WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, protects against nigrostriatal cell loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29(11):2177-2186.
  18. Palazuelos J, Aguado T, Pazos MR, et al. Microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors are neuroprotective in Huntington’s disease excitotoxicity. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 11):3152-3164.
  19. Gómez-Gálvez Y, Palomo-Garo C, Fernández-Ruiz J, García C. Potential of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a pharmacological target against inflammation in Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;64:200-208.
  20. Fernández-Ruiz J, Moreno-Martet M, Rodríguez-Cueto C, et al. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1365-1378.
  21. García C, Palomo-Garo C, García-Arencibia M, Ramos JA, Pertwee RG, Fernández-Ruiz J. Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1495-1506.
  22. Concannon RM, Okine BN, Finn DP, Dowd E. Differential upregulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in neurotoxic and inflammation-driven rat models of Parkinson’s disease. Exp Neurol. 2015;269:133-141.
  23. Price DA, Martinez AA, Seillier A, et al. WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, protects against nigrostriatal cell loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29(11):2177-2186.
  24. Ren SY, Wang ZZ, Zhang Y, Chen NH. Potential application of endocannabinoid system agents in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases-focusing on FAAH/MAGL inhibitors. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020;41(10):1263-1271. doi:10.1038/s41401-020-0385-7
  25. Mounsey RB, Mustafa S, Robinson L, et al. Targeting the endocannabinoid system in Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Med. 2020;9(8):2566. doi:10.3390/jcm9082566.
  26. O’Sullivan SE. Cannabinoids go nuclear: evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152(5):576-582. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707469
  27. Mattace Raso G, Pirozzi C, Realini N, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide prevents parkinsonian phenotype in mice by controlling basal ganglia unit firing and excessive microglia activation. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39(12):2049-2061. doi:10.1111/ejn.12586
  28. Esposito E, Impellizzeri D, Mazzon E, et al. The N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitor ARN077 reduces neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus and improves contextual memory in an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:213. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-213
  29. Scuderi C, Esposito G, Blasio A, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide counteracts reactive astrogliosis induced by beta-amyloid peptide. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15(12):2664-2674. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01354.x
  30. Granado N, Lastres-Becker I, Ares-Santos S, et al. N-oleoylethanolamide protects against dopamine neuronal damage via activation of the mTOR pathway. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43(2):456-465. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.04.014
  31. Martínez V, Iriondo-DeHond A, Borau C, et al. TRP Channels as Potential Targets for Sex-Related Differences in Parkinson’s Disease. Front Neurol. 2015;6:155. doi:10.3389/fneur.2015.00155
  32. García-Morales, V., Montero, C., González, E., Román, L., & Pertwee, R. G. (2014). Spontaneous motor behavior in the MPTP-treated common marmoset: acute effects and chronic administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist hu-210. Neuropharmacology, 86, 380–387. Doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.07.023
  33. González-Aparicio M, Moratalla R. Oleoylethanolamide reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia via TRPV1 receptor in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Jan;62:416-25. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2013.10.013. PMID: 24189346.
  34. Lastres-Becker I, Molina-Holgado F, Ramos JA, Mechoulam R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;19(1-2):96-107. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2004.11.009
  35. van der Stelt, M., & Di Marzo, V. (2003). Endovanilloids. Putative endogenous ligands of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels. European Journal of Biochemistry, 270(23), 3719-3728. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03831.x
  36. Fernández-Ruiz, J., Romero, J., Velasco, G., Tolón, R. M., Ramos, J. A., Guzmán, M., & Galve-Roperh, I. (2007). Cannabinoid CB2 receptor: A new target for controlling neural cell survival? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 28(1), 39-45. doi: 10.1016/
  37. Pisani, V., Moschella, V., Bari, M., Fezza, F., Galati, S., Bernardi, G., Stanzione, P., & Pisani, A. (2011). Dynamic changes of anandamide in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients. Movement Disorders, 26(2), 281-286. doi: 10.1002/mds.23486
  38. Piomelli, D. (2003). The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(11), 873-884. doi: 10.1038/nrn1247
  39. Gubellini, P., Picconi, B., Bari, M., Battista, N., Calabresi, P., & Centonze, D. (2002). Experimental parkinsonism alters endocannabinoid degradation: implications for striatal glutamatergic transmission. Journal of Neurochemistry, 82(6), 1535-1543. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.01093.x
  40. Chagas, M. H. N., Zuardi, A. W., Tumas, V., Pena-Pereira, M. A., Sobreira, E. T., Bergamaschi, M. M., … & Crippa, J. A. (2014). Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial. Journal of psychopharmacology, 28(11), 1088-1098. doi: 10.1177/0269881114550355
  41. Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Moreira FA, Guimarães FS. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39(4):421-429. doi: 10.1590/s0100-879×2006000400001.
  42. Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Hill M, et al. Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Neurology. 2001 Apr 10;56(7):1075-9. doi: 10.1212/wnl.56.7.1075. PMID: 11320180.
  43. Lotan I, Treves TA, Roditi Y, Djaldetti R. Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2014;37(2):41-44. doi:10.1097/WNF.0000000000000016.
  44. Venderova K, Ruzicka E, Vorisek V, Visnovsky P. Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms. Mov Disord. 2004;19(9):1102-1106. doi:10.1002/mds.20111
  45. Balash Y, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Korczyn AD, et al. Medical cannabis in Parkinson’s disease: real-life patients’ experience. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2017;40(6):268-272. doi:10.1097/WNF.0000000000000246
  46. Jain V, Behl T, Sehgal A, et al. Therapeutic Molecular Insights into the Active Engagement of Cannabinoids in the Therapy of Parkinson’s Disease: A Novel and Futuristic Approach. Neurotox Res. 2023;41(1):85-102. doi:10.1007/s12640-022-00619-y

References for table:

  1. Santos R, et al. Phytocannabinoids and the treatment of movement disorders: a systematic review. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14(5):545-553.
  2. Gugliandolo A, et al. Cannabidiol: a potential new alternative for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and psychotic disorders. Biomolecules. 2020;10(11):1575.
  3. Lastres-Becker I, et al. Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;19(1-2):96-107.
  4. 4. Giuliano G, et al. The effects of cannabidiol in a murine model of Parkinson’s disease: focus on the Akt/GSK-3βsignaling pathway. Biomolecules. 2021;11(9):1336.
  5. Chagas MH, et al. Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(11):1088-1098.
  6. Zuardi AW, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23(8):979-983.
  7. Lauritano A, et al. Protective effects of N-oleoylglycine in a cellular model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(2):782.
  8. Mesnage V, et al. Therapeutic potential of Δ9-THC and endocannabinoid system in a MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171(15):3687-3697.
  9. García C, et al. Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1495-1506.
  10. Viveros-Paredes JM, et al. Neuroprotective effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Pediatr Res. 2017;82(1):79-86.
  11. Price DA, et al. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide, increases the coupling of the Gαi1 protein to the CB1 receptor and modulates receptor function in the rat hippocampus. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157(7):1255-1264.
  12. Mishra S, Palanivelu K. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: an overview. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008;11(1):13-19.
  13. Mythri RB, Bharath MM. Curcumin: a potential neuroprotective agent in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(1):91-99.
  14. Yang F, et al. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(7):5892-5901.
  15. Jin F, et al. Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;600(1-3):78-82.
  16. Sharma N, Nehru B. Curcumin affords neuroprotection and inhibits α-synuclein aggregation in lipopolysaccharide-induced Parkinson’s disease model. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26(2):349-360.
  17. Wang J, et al. Resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, restores the function of damaged mitochondria and reduces α-synuclein aggregates in Parkinson’s disease models. Exp Ther Med. 2015;9(5):1691-1696.
  18. Iorio R, Celenza G, Petricca S. Multi-Target Effects of ß-Caryophyllene and Carnosic Acid at the Crossroads of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration: From Oxidative Stress to Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022;11(6):1199. doi:10.3390/antiox11061199
  19. Flores-Soto ME, Corona-Angeles JA, Tejeda-Martinez AR, et al. β-Caryophyllene exerts protective antioxidant effects through the activation of NQO1 in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 2021;742:135534. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135534
  20. Ojha S, Javed H, Azimullah S, Haque ME. β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;418(1-2):59-70. doi:10.1007/s11010-016-2733-y
  21. Svensson M, et al. Physiotherapy in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of present treatment modalities. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22(1):4-12.
  22. Engeroff T, et al. Exercise for the treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsons Dis. 2018;2018:9870659.
  23. da Silva FC, et al. Effects of physical exercise programs on cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the last 10 years. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0193113.
  24. Frazzitta G, et al. Effectiveness of intensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment on disease progression in parkinsonian patients: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26(2):144-150.
  25. Pickut BA, et al. Mindfulness training among individuals with Parkinson’s disease: neurobehavioral effects. Parkinsons Dis. 2015;2015:816404.
  26. Klainin-Yobas P, et al. Effects of mindfulness meditation on physical and psychological outcomes for adult cancer patients: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2016;14(1):139-152.
  27. van der Heide A, et al. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on cognitive functioning in people with Parkinson’s disease and comorbid anxiety and/or depression: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (MIND-PD). Parkinsons Dis. 2020;2020:8826764.